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1、turkey is a?democratic,?constitutional republic?with a?diverse cultural heritage.the vast majority of the population is?muslim. turkey?joined the?eu customs union?in 1995 and started?full membership negotiations?with the?european union?in 2005. turkeys growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a?regional power. tourism in turkey?has experienced rapid growth in the last twenty years, and constitutes an important part of the economy. in 2013, 37.8 million foreign visitors arrived in turkey, which ranked as the?6th most popular tourism destination in the world; they contributed $27.9 billion to turkeys revenues.?in 2012, 15 percent of the tourists were from?germany, 11 percent from?russia, 8 percent from the?united kingdom, 5 percent from bulgaria, 4 percent each from?georgia, the?netherlands?and?iran, 3 percent from?france, 2 percent each from the usa?and?syria, and 40 percent from other countries. turkey has?13 unesco world heritage sites, such as the historic areas of istanbulrock sites of?cappadociaarchaeological site of?troypergamon?and its multi-layered cultural landscape,?etc.
2、the?statue of liberty?is?a neoclassical sculpture?on?liberty island?in?new york harbor?in?new york city, in the?united states. the copper statue, designed by a french sculptor, and dedicated on october 28, 1886, was a gift to the united states from the people of?france. the statue is of a robed female figure representing?libertas, the?roman goddess, who bears a torch and a tablet evoking the law?upon which is inscribed the date of the?american declaration of independence, july 4, 1776. a broken chain lies at her feet. the statue is an icon of freedom and of the united states: a welcoming signal to?immigrants?arriving from abroad.?the torch-bearing arm was displayed at the?centennial exposition?in philadelphia in 1876, and in?madison square park?in?manhattan?from 1876 to 1882. the statue was constructed in france, shipped overseas in crates, and assembled on the completed pedestal on what was then called bedloes island.
3、ebola virus disease, or simply?evd, is a disease of humans and other?primates?caused by?ebola?viruses.?signs and symptoms typically start between ?two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a?fever,?sore throat,?muscular pain, and?headaches. then,?vomiting,?diarrhea?and?rash?usually follow, along with decreased function of the?liver?and?kidneys. at this time some people begin to?bleed?both?internally?and externally.?the disease has a high risk of death, killing between 25 and 90 percent of those infected, with an average of about 50 percent.?spread of the disease through the air between primates, including humans, has not been documented in either laboratory or natural conditions.?fruit bats?are believed to be the?normal carrier in nature, able to spread the virus without being affected by it. other diseases such as?malaria,?cholera,?typhoid fever,?meningitis?and other?viral hemorrhagic fevers?may resemble evd.
4、las vegas is an internationally renowned major?resort city?known primarily for gambling, shopping, fine dining and nightlife and is the leading financial and cultural center for?southern nevada, usa. established in 1905, las vegas was incorporated as a city in 1911. the city bills itself as?the entertainment capital of the world, and is famous for its mega casino–hotels and associated entertainment. a growing retirement and family city, las vegas is the?29th-most populous city?in the united states, with a population of 603,488 at the2013 united states census estimates.?the city is one of the top three leading destinations in the?united states?for conventions, business, and m
eetings and is one of the wealthiest major cities in the country.?in addition, the citys?metropolitan area?has more?aaa five diamond?hotels than any other city in the world, and is a global leader in the?hospitality industry.?today, las vegas is one of the top tourist destinations in the world.
5、first aid?is the assistance given to any person suffering a?sudden?illness?or?injury,?with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, and?promote recovery. if the patient was breathing, a first aider would normally?place them in the?recovery position, with the patient leant over on their side, which also has the effect of clearing the tongue from the pharynx. it also avoids a common cause of death in unconscious patients, which is choking on regurgitated stomach contents.?once the airway has been opened, the first aider would assess to see if the patient is breathing. if there is no breathing, or the patient is not breathing normally, such as?agonal breathing, the first aider would undertake what is probably the most recognized first aid procedure—cardiopulmonary resuscitation or cpr, which involves breathing for the patient, and manually massaging the heart to promote blood flow around the body.
6、cardiopulmonary resuscitation, commonly known as?cpr,?is an?emergency procedure?performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in?cardiac arrest.?cpr involves chest compressions at least 5?cm?deep and at a rate of at least 100 per minute in an effort to create artificial circulation by manually pumping blood through the heart and thus the body. the rescuer may also provide breaths by either exhaling into the subjects lungs. this process of externally providing ventilation is termed?artificial respiration.?cpr alone is unlikely to restart the heart. its main purpose is to restore partial flow of oxygenated blood to the?brain?and?heart. the objective is to delay?tissue death?and to extend the brief window of opportunity for a successful resuscitation without permanent?brain damage.
7、quantum of the seas?spent its inaugural 2014–2015 season sailing from?cape liberty?in?bayonne, new jersey, united states, before repositioning to china in may 2015. beginning late june 2015, the ship will sail three- to eight-night itineraries year-round from shanghai to japan and korea.?on june 20, 2015, the ship visited hong kong.?quantum of the seas?has 16 passenger-accessible decks, 8 of which feature balcony staterooms overlooking the ocean. there are a total of 2,090 staterooms: 1,570 balcony staterooms, 147 ocean-view staterooms, and 373 inside staterooms. of those staterooms, 34 are wheelchair accessible and 28 are studio staterooms for single travelers. all aft-facing staterooms are 2-story concept introduced by?disney cruise lineon the?disney dream, all the interior staterooms feature a floor-to-ceiling 80-inch high-definition tv screen showing live views from the outside of the ship.
8、vatican city, officially the?vatican city state?is a walled?enclave?within the city of?rome. with an area of approximately 44?hectares, and a population of 842, it is the smallest internationally recognized?independent state?in the world by both?area?and?population.?vatican city is distinct from the?holy see,?which dates back to?early christianity?and is the main?episcopal see?of 1.2?billion?latin?and?eastern catholic?adherents around the globe. within vatican city are cultural sites such as?st. peters basilica, the?sistine chapel?and the?vatican museums. they feature some of the worlds most famous paintings and sculptures. the unique?economy of vatican city?is supported financially by the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.?the name?vatican city?was first used in the?lateran treaty, signed on 11 february 1929, which established the modern city-state. the name is taken from?vatican hill, the geographic location of the state.
9、paris?is the?capital?and?most-populous city?of?france. the city of paris has an area of 105.4 square kilometers?and had a population of 2,241,346?in 2014.?the paris region covers 12,012 square kilometers and has its own regional council and president. it had a population of 12,005,077 as of january 2014, or 18.2 percent of the population of france.?by the 12th century, paris was the largest city in the western world, a prosperous trading centre, and the home of the?university of paris, one of the first in europe. in the 18th century, it was the centre stage for the?french revolution, and became an important centre of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, a position it still retains today.?paris is the home of the most visited?art museum?in the world, the?louvre, noted for its collection of french?impressionist?art. the notable architectural landmarks of paris?is?the?eiffel tower. in 2014 paris received 22.4 million visitors, making it one of the worlds top tourist destinations.
10、washington, d.c., formally the?district of columbia?is the?capital?of the?united states. the states of?maryland?and?virginia?each donated land to form the federal district. named in honor of?george washington, the city of washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. in 1846, congress?returned the land originally ceded by virginia; in 1871, it created a?single municipal government?for the remaining portion of the district.?washington, d.c., had an estimated population of 658,893 in 2014, the?22nd-most populous city?in the united states.?the centers of all three branches of the?federal government of the united states?are in the district, including the congress,?president, and?supreme court. washington is home to many national?monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the?national mall. the city hosts 176?foreign embassies?as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups, and professional associations.?
11、sweden?is a?scandinavian?country in northern europe.?it borders?norway?and?finland. sweden is the third-largest country in the?european union?by area, with a total population of over 9.7 million.?sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the?middle ages. in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the?swedish empire, which became one of the?great powers?of europe until the early 18th century. swedish territories outside the scandinavian peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, beginning with the annexation of present-day?finland?by?russia?in 1809.?sweden maintains a?nordic social welfare system?that provides?universal health care?and?tertiary education?for its citizens. it has the?worlds eighth-highest per capita income?and ranks highly in numerous metrics of national performance, including?quality of life, health,?education, protection of?civil liberties, economic competitiveness,?equality,?prosperity?and?human development.
12、travelers are screened by?metal detectors.?explosive detection?machines used include?x-ray machines?and?explosives trace-detection portal machines?called . in the united states the tsa is working on new scanning machines that are still effective searching for objects that are?not allowed in the airplanes but that dont depict the passengers in a state of undress that some find embarrassing. explosive detection machines can also be used for both carry on and checked baggage. in the united states,?non-passengers were once allowed on the concourses to meet arriving friends or relatives at their gates, but this is now greatly restricted due to the?terrorist attacks on september 11, 2001. non-passengers must obtain a gate pass to enter the secure area of the airport. the most common reasons that a non-passenger may obtain a gate pass is to assist children and the elderly as well as for attending business meetings that take place in the secure area of the airport. in the united states, at least 24 hours notice is generally required for those planning to attend a business meeting inside the secure area of the airport.??
13、a?pyramid?is a?structure?whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a?pyramid in the geometric sense.?the?square pyramid, with square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version.?pyramids have been built by civilizations in many parts of the world. for thousands of years, the?largest structures?on earth were pyramids,such as the?great pyramid?of?khufu?in egypt,?which is the only one of the?seven wonders of the ancient world?still remaining. khufus pyramid is built mainly of?limestone, and is considered an architectural masterpiece. it contains over 2,000,000 blocks ranging in weight from 2.5 tonnes?to15?tonnes?and is built on a square base with sides measuring about 230?m, covering 13 acres. its four sides face the four cardinal points precisely and it has an angle of 52 degrees. the original height of the pyramid was 146.5?m, but today it is only 137?m high, the 9?m that is missing is due to the theft of the fine quality white?tura?limestone covering, or casing stones, for construction in cairo. it is still the tallest pyramid.
14、moscow?is the?capital?and the?largest?city of?russia?with 12.2 million residents within the?city limits?and 16.8 million within the?urban area. it is the capital of the?central federal district?and?moscow oblast. moscow is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific center in russia and?eastern europe, as well as the?largest city?entirely on the?european continent.?the city is well known for its unique architecture which consists of many different historic buildings such as?saint basils cathedral?with its brightly colored domes. moscow is considered the center of russian culture, having served as the home of prestigious russian artists, scientists and sports figures during the course of its history and because of the presence of many different museums, academic and political institutions and theaters. moscow is also the seat of power of the?government of russia, being the site of the?moscow kremlin, a medieval city-fortress that is today the residence of the russian president. the moscow kremlin and the red square are also one of several?world heritage sites?in the city.?
15、london?is the?capital?and most populous city of?england?and the?united kingdom. standing on the?river thames, london is a leading?global city,?with strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transport all contributing to its prominence.?london is a world cultural capital.?it is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals?and has the?worlds largest city airport system?measured by passenger traffic.?londons 43 universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in europe.?london contains four?world heritage sites: the?tower of london;?kew gardens; the site comprising the?palace of westminster,?westminster abbey, and?st margarets church; and the historic settlement of?greenwich.?other famous landmarks include?buckingham palace, the?london eye, st pauls cathedral,?tower bridge,?etc.?london is home to numerous?museums, galleries, libraries,?sporting events?and other cultural institutions, including the?british museum,?national gallery,?british library?and 40?west end?theatres.?
1、?what are the advantages and disadvantages of online shopping?
1)it’s very convenient and time-saving compared with traditional shopping.?便利、节约时刻。
2)you just need to click your mouse and wait instead?of going out by foot or driving. ?只需动动鼠标,然后等候,不需要走路或开车出去。
3)?you can have more choices?for online shopping.网购选择更多
4)?people can buy anything at anytime they like. 随时随地买东西。
1)people?might not get the exact product they want.买到的不是自个想要的。
2)you need to guard against the hackers who intend to steal the?account passwords. 避免黑客偷密码
3)people may?get cheated?by fake commodities.买到赝品上当。
4)it’s troublesome for customers to make a change when they are not satisfied with what?they bought online.网购产品不满足时换很费事。
2?what important notices should a tour leader mention to the tour group members before?the departure to thailand?
1)?thai people respect the royal family. people should dress formally when visiting royal palace. 泰国人尊敬皇室。赏识皇室不能随意乱穿衣裳。
2)?tourists should prevent themselves from getting sun-burnt. ?防晒
3)?we need to prepare a certain amount of ?tips, because it’s a routine ?to give tips. 预备小费,给小费是常规
4)?temple is considered as a holy place, when we get in, we should dress decently. 寺庙是崇高之地,进入寺庙应穿戴正经。
5)?ladies can’t have direct touch with monks. 女人不触摸和尚。
6)?we should take care of our valuable articles when shopping . 购物时看守好随身名贵物品。
7)?head is considered as the holiest part of one’s body, we can’t touch other’s head casually.透视身体的最高有些,不能随意摸别人的头。
8) we should use polite language and protect public facilities.运用礼貌言语,维护公共设备。
9) we should behave politely when taking the plane. 乘飞机时言行礼貌。
10) gambling is forbidden, even when we stay in hotel rooms.??禁赌
3.what important notices should a tour leader mention to the tour group members before?the departure to western europe?
1)?we should carry necessary articles including passport, id card, cash, some necessary medicine. 需带着的物品?护照、身份证、现金、必备药品等。
2)?we need to prepare a certain amount of tips, because it’s a routine to pay tips. 在欧洲旅行,您需要付出必定数额的小费。
3)?in some hotels, there is no one-off items, for example tooth brush, slippers. tourists need to prepare these by themselves. 有些酒店均无一次性运用物品:如牙刷、牙膏、拖鞋、电热水瓶,自备;
4)?there is no hot water supply, but the tap water in the room is drinkable.?.房间内没有热开水供给,但房间内的自来水可以直接饮用;
5)??there are round twin jacks on the plug, and there is no changeover plug. the voltage is also 220 v.?欧洲电压与我国相同是220v,不过插头为两个圆柱状,无变换插头。
6)?bring a self-wifi with you, you can hire it or buy it . 自备随身wifi,买或租。
7) the breakfasts are always western style and simple, and european?people hate the behavior of wasting food.早餐一般为西式的自助早餐,简略,且欧洲人不喜爱浪费。
8)care about thieves, when strangers approach, be careful.?谨防窃匪,防备陌生人接近。
9)when visiting some famous churches?or palaces, don’t dress too casually. 赏识教堂或宫廷,穿戴不能太随意。
10)use polite expressions as often as possible, such as thanks, sorry and so on. 留心运用文明用语,?“您好”、“谢谢”、“对不住”?等
11)follow the tour group, or it will be easy for you to get lost in cities like venice. 紧跟旅行团,要否则像在威尼斯这样的城市很简略迷路。
4、suppose a tourist is seriously?ill during the outbound tour and needs rescue, what should the tour leader do?
1. ?firstly, the tour leader should accompany the local guide or tourist’s family members or friends to the emergency care center or hospital. 协同地陪或亲友送患者去急救中心或医院。
2. he can also call the doctor come to rescue the patient. ?或请医生前来抢救。
3. during process of rescue, tour leader should ask patient’s family members or friends to stay on site.在抢救进程中,领队需求患者亲友在场。
4. the tour leader should record the patient’s symptom and treatment carefully.具体记载患者患病前后的表现及医治情况。
5. the tour leader should keep immediate contact with local travel agency and sponsor travel agency. 随时向当地招待社及国内组团社反映情况。
6. the tour leader should ask the sponsor travel agency to help contact family members of the patient.经过组团社及时告诉患者亲属。
7. the tour leader should make a good arrangement of activities of other tourists in tour group. 妥善组织好旅行团其他旅行者的活动。
8. tour leader should follow the tour group to go on with the visit.领队持续随团旅行。
5、?suppose a?chinese?tourist’s passport is stolen in a foreign country, what should the tour leader do?to handle this situation?
1)firstly, the local guide will help to get the lost certificate of passport in the local travel agency.?首要,由当地的导游协助到当地招待社开具护照丢掉证明,
2)with the certificate, the tour leader accompanies the tourist to report the stolen passport to the nearest police station.?持当地招待社的丢掉证明,从速地到就近差人局报案
3)obtain the legal certificate of reporting from the local police station. 然后获得差人机构开具的具有法令效能的报案证明
4)prepare certificate of reporting, picture of the loser and name list of the tour group. 预备当地差人机构的报案证明和丢掉者相片及旅行团的护照材料(即团队名单表)
5)with above materials, the tour leader accompanies the tourist to get new passport/temporary pass in chinese embassy?of the foreign country. 凭以上材料到我国驻在国的使领馆处置新的护照(或许暂时通行证)
6)the tour leader accompanies the tourist to the?immigration office. 去地址国的移民局
7)with the new passport or temporary pass and other materials, tourist pass through the visa application process. 持获得的新护照或暂时通行证及有关材料处置签证。
8)the tourist should pay all the relative fees by himself. ?处置上述手续的费用完全由旅行者自理。


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